Stable and Efficient Shapley Value-Based Reward Reallocation for Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning of Autonomous Vehicles

Abstract

With the development of sensing and communication technologies in networked cyber-physical systems (CPSs), multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL)-based methodologies are integrated into the control process of physical systems and demonstrate prominent performance in a wide array of CPS domains, such as connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs). However, it remains challenging to mathematically characterize the improvement of the performance of CAVs with communication and cooperation capability. When each individual autonomous vehicle is originally self-interest, we can not assume that all agents would cooperate naturally during the training process. In this work, we propose to reallocate the system’s total reward efficiently to motivate stable cooperation among autonomous vehicles. We formally define and quantify how to reallocate the system’s total reward to each agent under the proposed transferable utility game, such that communicationbased cooperation among multi-agents increases the system’s total reward. We prove that Shapley value-based reward reallocation of MARL locates in the core if the transferable utility game is a convex game. Hence, the cooperation is stable and efficient and the agents should stay in the coalition or the cooperating group. We then propose a cooperative policy learning algorithm with Shapley value reward reallocation. In experiments, compared with several literature algorithms, we show the improvement of the mean episode system reward of CAV systems using our proposed algorithm.

Songyang Han
Songyang Han
PhD student | Computer Science and Engineering | Artificial Intelligence

My research interests include multi-agent reinforcement learning, connected autonomous vehicles.